Acceso abierto significa que cualquier usuario individual pueda leer, descargar, copiar, distribuir, imprimir, buscar o enlazar los textos completos de los artículos científicos y usarlos con cualquier otro propósito legítimo,1 como hacer minería de datos de su contenido digital, sin otras barreras económicas, legales o técnicas que las que suponga Internet en sí misma. Es decir, es una manera gratuita y abierta de acceder a la literatura científica. También se extiende a otros contenidos digitales que los autores desean hacer libremente accesible a los usuarios en línea. El acceso libre es una necesidad primaria hecha evidente por el advenimiento de Internet.
El acceso abierto tiene tres puntos clave,
- Hacer que la literatura científica se encuentre disponible en línea
- Eliminar las barreras económicas
- Eliminar la mayoría de las barreras de permisos de reutiización2
Esta corriente promueve eliminar las barreras económicas, legales y tecnológicas, y trata de obtener a cambio, como beneficios, una mayor accesibilidad para los documentos y una mayor visibilidad para los autores. Los documentos que están disponibles libremente son más consultados y tienen más posibilidades de ser citados.3 Por otra parte, otro efecto deseado consiste en que los conocimientos y avances científico-técnicos se distribuyan de la manera más amplia posible, devolviéndole así a la sociedad los frutos de las investigaciones por ella subsidiada. Dicho en otros términos, devolver a la sociedad los beneficios de las inversiones realizadas en investigaciones científicas.4
El acceso abierto facilita la disponibilidad de los resultados de investigación y fomenta un aumento de la productividad de la investigación. Los motores de búsqueda de Internet y la publicación de artículos en repositorios de acceso abierto aumentan en gran medida la accesibilidad de las publicaciones.5
Son diversas las iniciativas, propuestas y declaraciones sobre acceso abierto para el material científico, que con pequeñas diferencias, sostienen la necesidad de la disponibilidad en Internet de la información científica, para toda la humanidad, sin restricciones. En líneas generales, las coincidencias entre los diversos documentos parten del uso de Internet como sistema de difusión y la disponibilidad sin costos.
Open access itself (mostly green and gratis) began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet and the World Wide Web. The momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, it contributed to causing problems in traditional publishing models.
The premises behind open access publishing are that there are viable funding models to maintain traditional peer review standards of quality while also making the following changes:
- Rather than making journal articles accessible through a subscription business model, all academic publications could be made free to read and published with some other cost-recovery model, such as publication charges, subsidies, or charging subscriptions only for the print edition, with the online edition gratis or "free to read".
- Rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or "free to build upon".
An obvious advantage of open access journals is the free access to scientific papers regardless of affiliation with a subscribing library and improved access for the general public; this is especially true in developing countries. Lower costs for research in academia and industry have been claimed in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, although others have argued that OA may raise the total cost of publication, and further increase economic incentives for exploitation in academic publishing. The open access movement is motivated by the problems of social inequality caused by restricting access to academic research, which favor large and wealthy institutions with the financial means to purchase access to many journals, as well as the economic challenges and perceived unsustainability of academic publishing.
The main reason authors make their articles openly accessible is to maximize their research impact. There have been claims of higher citation rates for open access authors. The overall citation rates for a time period of 2 years (2010–2011) were 30% higher for subscription journals, but, after controlling for discipline, journal age and publisher location, the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories, except for those launched prior to 1996. A study in 2001 first reported an open access citation impact advantage,
Two major studies dispute the claim that open access articles lead to more citations. A randomized controlled trial of open access publishing involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities found that open access articles (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 years.
Many other studies, both major and minor and with varying degrees of methodological rigor, find that an open access article is more likely to be used and cited than one behind subscription barriers.
For example, a 2006 study in PLoS Biology found that articles published as immediate open access in PNAS were three times more likely to be cited than non-open access papers, and were also cited more than PNAS articles that were only self-archived. This result has been challenged as an artifact of authors self-selectively paying to publish their higher quality articles in hybrid open access journals, whereas a 2010 study found that the open access citation advantage was equally big whether self-archiving was self-selected or mandated.
A 2010 study of 27,197 articles in 1,984 journals used institutionally mandated open access instead of randomized open access to control for bias on the part of authors toward self-selectively making their better (hence more citeable) articles open access. The result was a replication of the repeatedly reported open access citation advantage, with the advantage being equal in size and significance whether the open access was self-selected or mandated.
A 2016 study reported that the odds of an open access journal being referenced on the English Wikipedia are 47% higher than for paywalled journals, and suggested that this constitutes a significant "amplifier" effect for science published on such platforms.
Scholars are paid by research funders and/or their universities to do research; the published article is the report of the work they have done, rather than an item for commercial gain. The more the article is used, cited, applied and built upon, the better for research as well as for the researcher's career. Open access can reduce publication delays, an obstacle which led some research fields such as high-energy physics to adopt widespread preprint access.
Some professional organizations have encouraged use of open access: in 2001, the International Mathematical Union communicated to its members that "Open access to the mathematical literature is an important goal" and encouraged them to "[make] available electronically as much of our own work as feasible" to "[enlarge] the reservoir of freely available primary mathematical material, particularly helping scientists working without adequate library access."
From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access <--- More info